Neighbourhoods

Segmentation of households and/or population into distinct groups, each with different needs and behaviour  is a widely used technique  in marketing, and  where  retailers  or other service providers in private or public sectors need to understand the characteristics and behaviour of their local population.

Combining  demographic data with location information – so called geo-demographics- to establish what kind of people live in which kind of neighbourhoods  has  proved very useful in practice.

We have a long record in  producing geo-demographic classifications, since members of our original group produced a National Classification of Residential Neighbourhoods published in the Geographical Magazine in 1980 – and which eventually led to the commercial ACORN classification.

There are a number of commercial and open source classifications available. They use  using census and supplementary survey data which assign census output areas and/or postcodes to a particular group or type. They are usually hierarchical – with relatively few (typically 5 to 15 ) broad groups, which then split into many more individual types. Although they vary widely in the way they name the different groups and types (from the relatively neutral to the outlandishly patronising)  the two main organising dimensions are  income/prosperity (‘high’, ‘average’, ‘low’)  and life-stage ‘young’, ‘middle/family’, ‘old’.

One set of group labels are: ‘Wealthy Achievers’, ‘Urban Prosperity’, ‘Comfortably Off’, ‘Moderate Means’ and ‘Hard Pressed’, another is ‘Alpha territory’, ‘Professional rewards’, ‘Rural solitude’, ‘Small town diversity’, ‘Active retirement’, ‘Suburban mindsets’, ‘Careers and kids’, ‘New homemakers’, ‘Ex-council community’, ‘Claimant cultures’, ‘Upper floor living’, ‘Elderly needs’, ‘Industrial heritage’, ‘Terraced melting pot’, ‘Liberal opinions’.

An ‘open source’ classification of census output areas is available from the ONS

http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/geography/products/area-classifications/ns-area-classifications/index/methodology-and-variables/output-areas/output-areas.html

Blue collar communities, City living, Countryside, Prospering suburbs, Constrained by circumstances, Typical traits, Multicultural.

The CES Classification of output areas based on the 2001 census is set out in the following two tables showing respectively the 12 main groups and the 53 individual types within the groups. It may be modified using 2011 census.

Group Group Name %
1 AVERAGE INCOME MOBILE YOUNGER FAMILIES 10.4
2 AVERAGE INCOME SETTLED, OLDER PEOPLE 36
3 AVERAGE INCOME YOUNG FAMILIES: RENTING 0.2
4 HIGH INCOME SUBURBS 15.3
5 BELOW AVERAGE INCOME: SUBSTANDARD HOUSING 3.9
6 RURAL AND SEMI RURAL FAMILIES: LOW UNEMPLOYMENT 6.4
7 INNER METROPOLITAN: SINGLE ADULTS 2.9
8 INNER METROPOLITAN SOCIALLY MIXED 1.1
9 LOW INCOME: INNER CITY COUNCIL ESTATES 7.1
10 LOW INCOME: SUBURBAN COUNCIL ESTATES 11.6
11 LOW INCOME: RENTED FLATS 1.3
12 ETHNIC MIX 3.9

 

Group Type Type Name %
GROUP 1 1 Mobile young non-manual families in council housing 1.41
AVERAGE INCOME MOBILE YOUNGER FAMILIES 10.4% 2 Young mobile skilled manual owner occupiers 0.74
3 Older skilled manual distribution workers 1.41
4 Mobile middle class families 1.49
5 Middle income skilled manual mature households 3.94
6 Below average income younger skilled manual families 1.41
GROUP 2 7 Older households in older substandard housing 2.41
AVERAGE INCOME SETTLED, ABOVE AVERAGE ELDERLY 36% 8 Lower income mixed age households in substandard housing 0.84
9 Older inner city settled council estates 1.99
10 Settled urban mixed age owner occupiers 2.83
11 Settled mixed age households in older owner occupied housing 3.99
12 Professional, often rural, family neighbourhoods 0.31
13 Older households in settled council estates 3.25
14 Retired households in rented housing 0.31
15 Middle class retired households 1.78
16 Skilled and single white collar service workers 3.46
17 Settled middle class owner occupied family suburbs 4.62
18 Higher income intermediate white collar families 4.30
19 Higher income intermediate white collar suburbs 5.88
GROUP 3 AVERAGE INCOME YOUNG FAMILIES: RENTING 0.20% 20 Migrant young families of mixed class in social housing 0.20
GROUP 4 21 Very high income professionals 2.55
HIGH INCOME SUBURBS 15.3% 22 Ultra high income middle class suburbs 4.25
  23 High income middle class suburbs 8.50
GROUP 5 BELOW AVERAGE INCOME: SUBSTANDARD HOUSING 3.9% 24 Mixed age mobile households in rented substandard housing 0.28
25 Lower income households in substandard mixed tenure housing 2.51
26 Low income families dependent on manufacturing employment 1.11
GROUP 6 RURAL AND SEMI RURAL FAMILIES: LOW UNEMP 6.4% 27 Self-employed rural, upland farming neighbourhoods 0.79
28 Mixed-age, prosp English agricultural neighbourhoods 0.79
29 Semi skilled rural/small towns working class with low unemployment 1.84
30 Higher income intermediate mixed age/class rural households 1.32
31 Rural semi skilled households 0.88
32 Rural agricultural farmers and male workers 0.79
GROUP 7 33 Rural unskilled households 0.09
INNER METROPOLITAN: SINGLE ADULTS 2.9% 34 Socially polarized, intermediate, metropolitan neighb’hoods 1.00
  35 Inner met mixed age white-collar neighbourhoods 1.18
36 Transient, socially mixed, young adult neighbourhoods 0.63
GROUP 8 INNER METROPOLITAN SOCIALLY MIXED 37 Socially mixed, multi adult households – renting 1.10
GROUP 9 38 Unskilled households in settled urban council estates 3.74
LOW INCOME: INNER CITY COUNCIL ESTATES 5.7% 39 Mobile professionals (and single parents) in social housing 0.50
40 Low income mixed age, metropolitan council estates 2.86
GROUP 10 41 Low income, single adult and single-parent council estates 0.08
LOW INCOME: SUBURBAN COUNCIL ESTATES 11.6% 42 Low income substandard council estates with large families 2.04
43 Low income mature, substandard, council estates 2.70
44 Low income, often substandard, overcrowded council flats 1.14
45 Blue collar settled council house neighbourhoods 3.92
46 Low income families in council flats 1.72
GROUP 11 47 Low income mobile households in inner city mixed housing 0.13
LOW INCOME: RENTED FLATS 1.3% 48 Low income overcrowded families in council flats 0.78
  49 Low income inner urban households in substandard flats 0.26
50 Low income ethnic minority households, crowded rented flats 0.13
GROUP 12 51 Low income ethnic minority neighbourhoods with few elderly 1.87
ETHNIC MIX 3.9% 52 Low income mixed age ethnic minority neighbourhoods 1.17
   53 Owner occupied ethnic minority family neighbourhoods 0.86

 

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